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The Book of Zephaniah - Summary

Zephaniah was a prophet (holy man). The Book of Zephaniah is in the Bible (Old Testament).

Zephaniah explained that God would punish many countries because of their evil deeds (Zephaniah chapters 1-2). God would also punish the evil people in Jerusalem (Zephaniah 3:1-5).

So, the people should pray to God (Zephaniah 2:1-3). They must confess their evil deeds to God. And they must be humble.

When these terrible punishments happen, God will protect the people who trust him (Zephaniah 3:9-13). God will rescue them. He loves them. And he will make them glad (Zephaniah 3:14-20).

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Chapter Descriptions

Listen Download   Zephaniah Introduction
Listen Download Bible - KJV Zephaniah Ch. 1 Zep1: "I will sweep away everything from the earth," declares the LORD. The day of the LORD is near. "I will bring distress on mankind."
Listen Download Bible - KJV Zephaniah Ch. 2 Zep2: Seek the LORD, you humble. Gaza shall be deserted. The LORD is against you, O Canaan. He will stretch out his hand to destroy Assyria.
Listen Download Bible - KJV Zephaniah Ch. 3 Zep3: Woe to the rebellious city! "I have cut off nations. I will leave a humble people." Sing, O Zion! The LORD will quiet you by his love.

Book of Zephaniah Outlines by J.Vernon McGee PDF format <Link>


About the Book of Zephaniah

Zephaniah was a man who knew God. He was a *prophet. He lived when Josiah was king of God’s people. These were the people who lived in *Judah.

Zephaniah wrote this book between the years 630 and 625 B.C. (B.C. means ‘before Christ lived on earth’.) The book is in three parts. In Chapter 1, Zephaniah told the people in Judah that God would *punish them. In Chapter 2, Zephaniah was speaking to people in many countries. These were the countries on every side of *Judah. He told them that God was angry with them. He also told them that God would *punish them. Chapter 3 is another message to the people in *Judah.

At that time, the *prophet Jeremiah also was giving God’s messages to the people in *Judah. Both *prophets (Zephaniah and Jeremiah) said that God loved his people in *Judah. But these *prophets taught that God was also angry. The people had done what God does not like. That is why God was angry. God did not want to *punish his people. He wanted to be kind to them. But he told them that they must stop doing wrong things. They should love him again. If they continued to love false gods, God would certainly *punish them.

King Josiah was a good man. He listened to the *prophets. He *punished the *false *prophets. He took away the false gods that they had made out of wood or stone or metal. He also broke down the special tables of stone on which they burned gifts to God (sacrifices). That was because they did it in the wrong place or in the wrong way.

Some people in *Judah listened to the *prophets. Those people loved God. But many people did not listen. So about 40 years after that, God sent the army of Babylon to destroy Jerusalem. Jerusalem was the city where the Temple (God’s *holy house) was. Babylon was an important city in another country. This happened in the year 586 B.C. Four more kings had ruled *Judah after Josiah.

The people from Babylon began to take *Judah’s people away from their homes to Babylon. In that way, God *punished *Judah’s people. They had done what God does not like. So he *punished them. But God had not finished with his people. He had said that his people would return to *Judah at some time. Then the people would really love God and they would obey him. This will happen at the future time when God is king of the whole world. Then there will be a good and happy time.

Chapter 1

v1 This is the *LORD’s message, which he gave to Zephaniah, Cushi’s son. Cushi’s father was Gedaliah. Gedaliah’s father was Amariah, and Amariah’s father was Hezekiah. The *LORD gave this message to Zephaniah when Josiah was king. Josiah was the son of Amon, who was the king of *Judah.

v2 ‘It is the *LORD who is speaking now.

I will remove everything from the ground.

v3 I will remove men and animals.

I will remove the birds that fly in the air.

I will also remove the fish that live in the sea.

I will remove all the bad people.

Bad people cause trouble for other people.

Yes, I will remove all the people from the ground.

It is the *LORD who is speaking.

v4 I will destroy *Judah.

I will remove all the people who live in Jerusalem.

I will remove all those who believe in the *false god Baal.

I will remove Baal’s *priests.

v5 Some people stand on the roof tops to *worship the sun, the moon and the stars. I will remove those people.

Some people say that they love me. But they say also that they love Malcam (a *false god). So I will remove them, too.’

Verse 4

*priests: See 2 Kings 23:5.

Verse 5

the sun, the moon and the stars: Many people in *Judah *worshipped the sun and the stars. See 2 Kings 23:11; Jeremiah 19:13; Ezekiel 8:16.

Malcam: The people who *worshipped the *false god Malcam killed their own children. They thought that it made Malcam happy.

v6 ‘I will remove those who have turned away from the *LORD.

I will also remove those who decide things without the *LORD.

v7 Be quiet! God, the *LORD is here.

It will soon be the *day of the LORD.

The *LORD has made his *sacrifice ready.

He has made the people ready who will give the *sacrifice to him.’

Verse 7

‘day of the LORD’: the time when God sent a cruel army, called Chaldeans, to fight against *Judah.

*sacrifice: Here, this does not mean an animal. It means the people who *worshipped *false gods.

the people that God made ready: the army of the Chaldeans.

v8 ‘When it is time for the *LORD’s *sacrifice, I will *punish the rulers and the king’s sons.

I will *punish the people who wear *heathen clothes, too.’

Verse 8

‘heathen clothes’: We think that these were foreign clothes. They put these clothes on when they *worshipped other gods.

v9 ‘I will also *punish the people who rush into other people’s houses. They do that because they want to rob those people.

On that same day, I will also *punish other robbers. Those people fill their masters’ houses with the things that they take.’

v10 ‘On that day’, says the *LORD, ‘you will hear the noise of people who are shouting from one gate of the city. It is the gate called Fish Gate.

And there will be sad sounds from the next gate.

There will be loud noises from the hills.

v11 Shout out, you who live in Maktesh! Weep!

The *LORD will remove those who do business in your town.

Some people have lots of money there. But all those people will be dead then.’

Verses 10-11

This will happen to *Judah’s people when the army of the *Chaldeans comes.

v12 ‘At that time,

I will look in all Jerusalem’s dark corners. I will take lights with me.

I will find the drunks and I will *punish them. These people say in their minds,

“The *LORD will do neither good things nor bad things to us.”

v13 So I will take away from them everything that they have.

I will take away their houses also.

They will build houses, but they will never live in them.

They will plant plants to get *grapes. But they will never have *wine from them.’

v14 The time for the great *day of the *LORD is soon, very soon.

It will happen quickly.

Strong men will weep when they hear the noise of it.

v15 The *LORD will be very angry at that time.

It will be a time when there will be trouble.

On that day, he will destroy everything bad.

It will be very dark. At that time, there will be thick dark clouds.

v16 At that time, people will make a noise with *trumpets. They will shout when they go to fight in a war.

In the fight, they will try to destroy the strong walls of cities.

And they will try to destroy the strong high parts of the walls.

v17 I will cause trouble for people.

So they will walk like people who cannot see.

This is because they have not obeyed the *LORD.

Their blood will fall to the ground.

Yes, they will fall to the ground and they will die. After that, they will be nothing.

v18 Their money will not save them

on the day when the *LORD is angry.

He watches.

And he is angry when his people love other gods.

So, he will send fire on the earth.

Yes, he will quickly kill all the people who live in *Judah.

Chapter 2

v1 Come together!

Yes, you people, come together and think.

You do not know how to be ashamed!

v2-3 The wind takes away the dry parts of a plant that covered the seed.

It will be like that when I *punish you.

Before it is the time for me to punish you, look for me.

Before this time is past, look for me.

Look for me, before I become very, very angry with you.

There will be a day when God will be angry. Look for me, before that day.

Yes, look for the *LORD, all you people who want to make him happy.

You have done what the *LORD wants.

Continue to do what is good.

But do not think that you are great.

Perhaps you will find a safe place

on the day when God is angry.

v4 Then, the people who have lived in Gaza city and Ashkelon city will not be there.

Enemies will also send away the people in Ashdod city at midday. And those enemies will destroy Ekron city.

v5 It will be very bad for you people called Cherethites, who live by the sea!

The *LORD’s message is against you.

I will also kill all you people called Philistines, who live in the country called Canaan!

You will all die. So nobody will live there.

v6 By the sea, there will be houses for people who feed sheep.

There will be safe places for their sheep.

v7 Those people in *Judah who love God will live there, by the sea.

They will have food there.

They will lie down to sleep in Ashkelon city’s houses.

The *LORD, their God, will be with them.

He will stop their troubles.

v8 The *LORD of all his armies says, ‘I have heard the cruel people in the countries called Moab and Ammon.

They laugh about you and they say cruel things about you, my people.

They have thought that they were greater than you.

They have come against you.’

v9 The *LORD of all his armies,

the God of Israel, says,

‘You can be sure that I live.

In the same way, you can also be sure that my people will take everything.

It will be theirs to keep.

God will destroy Moab as he destroyed *Sodom.

He will destroy Ammon as he destroyed *Gomorrah.

After this, the ground will have lots of salt on it. Weeds will grow there.

Nobody will build anything there again.

The small number of my people that enemies have not killed will have Ammon’s peoples’ things and Moab’s peoples’ things.’

v10 That will happen to all *proud people.

The *proud people said cruel words to God’s people.

The cruel people thought that they were greater than the people of the *LORD of all his armies.

v11 The *LORD will make them afraid.

He will destroy all the *false gods.

People will *worship him instead. Every person, in his own place, will *worship God.

They will also *worship him in the places where the people now believe in *false gods.

v12 ‘I will also *punish you people in the country called Ethiopia.

Other people will kill you with a big knife’, the *LORD says.

v13 The *LORD will go against the north.

There, he will destroy the country called Assyria.

He will also destroy Nineveh city. That place will become only dry sand.

v14 Sheep will lie down there.

All the wild animals of that place will live together there.

*Vultures and *owls will rest on top of the high, thin parts of the buildings.

They will sing in the windows.

Bits of doors will lie on the ground.

The *LORD will tear down all the things in the houses that they have made out of dear wood.

v15 All this will happen to that city, the *proud city.

That city’s people said in their minds,

‘Here we are. We are greater than all the other people.’

But then, other people will destroy their city! Only bits of it will still be there.

Then wild animals will come and they will lie down in it. People will see this.

So, any people who pass by the city will make noises with their lips.

And they will hold their fists up. In this way, they will show that they think bad things about the city.

Chapter 3

v1 It will be very bad for the city!

It is like something that is dirty.

Its people will not obey me. They like to fight weak people. They also like to do bad things.

v2 They do not listen to anyone’s voice.

They accept no *correction.

They do not *trust in the *LORD.

They do not come near to their God.

v3 The rulers of the city make a very loud noise with their voices like big wild animals.

Its *judges are like hungry *wolves.

They are like wolves that have even eaten all an animal’s bones before morning.

v4 Its *prophets do not know what to think.

People cannot *trust them.

Its *priests have done wrong things,

even in God’s *holy house.

They have also made changes to God’s rules.

They have made changes that they want.

v5 But the *LORD is among all the people in the city.

He will do what is right.

He is always the honest *judge.

He never fails.

But the bad people do not know how to be ashamed.

Verse 5

‘But the *LORD is among all the people in the city’: He is always present. He sees everything. He knows everything. He is with his people. He will do what is right for them.

v6 ‘I have destroyed *nations’, the *LORD says.

‘There is nobody in their strong *towers now.

I have made their streets empty, so no people are there.

I have destroyed their cities.

So, nobody lives in them now.

v7 I said, “I hope that the people in the city will obey me.

Accept *correction.”

The people would have been safe if they had accepted it.

Then I would not have to destroy them.

But it did not happen. I had to *punish them.

Still, the people got up early to do bad things.’

v8 ‘So wait for me’, says the *LORD.

‘I will stand up and I will *punish the *nations.

I have decided to bring together the *nations and the people that kings rule over.

Then I will *punish them very, very much.

They will see how angry I am.

They will see it because, on that day, I will burn all the earth.

v9 Then I will give to people lips that I have made *pure.

With those lips, they will call me *LORD.

And then, all the people will agree to work together for me.’

Verse 9

God will cause people to use words that are honest. And he will cause them to *worship him in the right way. See Ezekiel 11:17-20; 36:24-28.

v10 ‘Some people live a long way beyond the rivers of Ethiopia.

Yes, my people who pray went away to many other countries.

They will return and they will carry their gifts to me.

v11 At that time, you will not have to be ashamed

of the wrong things that you have done against me.

But I will take away those who do not see anything wrong in themselves.

Those people will not call each other

“the people who live on God’s *holy mountain”.

v12 But I will let the poor people remain there.

These are the people who have had bad times.

These are the people who will *trust me. And they will call me *LORD.

v13 I will let those people stay there.

They will not do any bad things.

They will only say things that are true.

They will say honest things.

They will eat well and they will sleep well.

Nobody will make them afraid.’

v14 Sing, you people in *Zion. You are my own people, like my own daughter.

Shout, you people in Israel!

Be very, very happy, my people in Jerusalem!

v15 The *LORD has not *punished you as he would have done.

He has sent your enemy away.

I, the King of Israel, am with you!

The bad times have gone.

They will not happen again!

v16 On that special day, this will be my message for Jerusalem.

‘Do not be afraid now! Do not be weak now!

v17 The *LORD, your God, is with you.

He is strong. He will save you.

He will be very happy about you!

He will quietly love you.

He will sing, because he is so happy about you!

v18 I will bring together those people among you who want to meet together again.

You want to meet again to pray. And you want to meet again to *praise God.

You have had enough cruel words from your enemies.

v19 Look! At that time, I will *punish

all those people who hurt you.

I will save those who cannot walk well.

I will bring back the people that the enemy has sent away.

I will cause people in every country to know about you. I will cause them to *praise you.

v20 At that time, I will bring you back to your home.

I will bring you back together.

I will give you a good name among all the people on the earth.

That is what I will do. I will stop your troubles. And you will see it happen.’

That is what the *LORD says.

Word List

Chaldeans ~ people who fought against Israel.

correction ~ when somebody tells the right thing to a person who is wrong.

day of the LORD ~ the time when God sent a cruel army, called Chaldeans, to fight against *Judah.

false ~ not true or good.

Gomorrah ~ a town that God was angry with.

grape ~ a small, sweet fruit that people make a drink called *wine from.

heathen ~ people who did not *worship the God of Israel; or those people’s things.

holy ~ all good with nothing bad in it; completely clean; something for God to use in a special way.

Judah ~ a part of the country of God’s people.

judge ~ a person who can say what is right.

LORD ~ a special name for God. It means that God is always God.

nation ~ a group of people who have the same ruler or king.

owls ~ birds that fly in the night.

praise ~ to say that somebody is very great; or, words that say that somebody is very great.

priest ~ a person who gave *sacrifices to God or to a *false god.

prophet ~ a person who got messages from God for the people.

proud ~ a proud person thinks that he is better than other people.

punish ~ to cause trouble to another person because that person has done something wrong.

pure ~ nothing wrong with it; something that is right to use because God is happy about it.

sacrifice ~ when they gave an animal to God; they killed the animal and they burned it on a special table.

Sodom ~ a town that God was angry with.

tower ~ a very high building or part of a building.

trumpet ~ men use this metal thing to make loud music. A metal pipe with a wide end. People use their mouths to make music with it.

trust ~ to believe that someone will always do right things.

vultures ~ big birds that eat dead bodies.

wine ~ a drink that has alcohol in it; people make it from small, sweet fruit called grapes.

wolves ~ wild animals, like very big dogs, that eat other animals.

worship ~ to give thanks to God; to tell God that he is great and that we love him very much. But some people worship other things instead.

Zion ~ another name for Jerusalem.

Book List

Rev. R. F. Horton, M.A., D.D. ~ Minor Prophets: Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Zechariah ~ The Century Bible ~ Caxton Publishing Ltd., London

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown ~ Commentary on the Whole Bible ~Zondervan

Matthew Poole ~ Commentary on the Holy Bible

Matthew Henry ~ Bible Commentary

Calvin’s Commentaries

Bibles ~ New King James Version, Young’s Literal Translation, Bible in 26 Translations, Contemporary English Version



Book 36 Zephaniah
King James Version
001:001 The word of the LORD which came unto Zephaniah the son of Cushi, the son of Gedaliah, the son of Amariah, the son of Hizkiah, in the days of Josiah the son of Amon, king of Judah.
001:002 I will utterly consume all things from off the land, saith the LORD.
001:003 I will consume man and beast; I will consume the fowls of the heaven, and the fishes of the sea, and the stumblingblocks with the wicked: and I will cut off man from off the land, saith the LORD.
001:004 I will also stretch out mine hand upon Judah, and upon all the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and I will cut off the remnant of Baal from this place, and the name of the Chemarims with the priests;
001:005 And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship and that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;
001:006 And them that are turned back from the LORD; and those that have not sought the LORD, nor enquired for him.
001:007 Hold thy peace at the presence of the Lord GOD: for the day of the LORD is at hand: for the LORD hath prepared a sacrifice, he hath bid his guests.
001:008 And it shall come to pass in the day of the LORD's sacrifice, that I will punish the princes, and the king's children, and all such as are clothed with strange apparel.
001:009 In the same day also will I punish all those that leap on the threshold, which fill their masters' houses with violence and deceit.
001:010 And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the LORD, that there shall be the noise of a cry from the fish gate, and an howling from the second, and a great crashing from the hills.
001:011 Howl, ye inhabitants of Maktesh, for all the merchant people are cut down; all they that bear silver are cut off.
001:012 And it shall come to pass at that time, that I will search Jerusalem with candles, and punish the men that are settled on their lees: that say in their heart, The LORD will not do good, neither will he do evil.
001:013 Therefore their goods shall become a booty, and their houses a desolation: they shall also build houses, but not inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, but not drink the wine thereof.
001:014 The great day of the LORD is near, it is near, and hasteth greatly, even the voice of the day of the LORD: the mighty man shall cry there bitterly.
001:015 That day is a day of wrath, a day of trouble and distress, a day of wasteness and desolation, a day of darkness and gloominess, a day of clouds and thick darkness,
001:016 A day of the trumpet and alarm against the fenced cities, and against the high towers.
001:017 And I will bring distress upon men, that they shall walk like blind men, because they have sinned against the LORD: and their blood shall be poured out as dust, and their flesh as the dung.
001:018 Neither their silver nor their gold shall be able to deliver them in the day of the LORD's wrath; but the whole land shall be devoured by the fire of his jealousy: for he shall make even a speedy riddance of all them that dwell in the land.

002:001 Gather yourselves together, yea, gather together, O nation not desired;
002:002 Before the decree bring forth, before the day pass as the chaff, before the fierce anger of the LORD come upon you, before the day of the LORD's anger come upon you.
002:003 Seek ye the LORD, all ye meek of the earth, which have wrought his judgment; seek righteousness, seek meekness: it may be ye shall be hid in the day of the LORD's anger.
002:004 For Gaza shall be forsaken, and Ashkelon a desolation: they shall drive out Ashdod at the noon day, and Ekron shall be rooted up.
002:005 Woe unto the inhabitants of the sea coast, the nation of the Cherethites! the word of the LORD is against you; O Canaan, the land of the Philistines, I will even destroy thee, that there shall be no inhabitant.
002:006 And the sea coast shall be dwellings and cottages for shepherds, and folds for flocks.
002:007 And the coast shall be for the remnant of the house of Judah; they shall feed thereupon: in the houses of Ashkelon shall they lie down in the evening: for the LORD their God shall visit them, and turn away their captivity.
002:008 I have heard the reproach of Moab, and the revilings of the children of Ammon, whereby they have reproached my people, and magnified themselves against their border.
002:009 Therefore as I live, saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, Surely Moab shall be as Sodom, and the children of Ammon as Gomorrah, even the breeding of nettles, and saltpits, and a perpetual desolation: the residue of my people shall spoil them, and the remnant of my people shall possess them.
002:010 This shall they have for their pride, because they have reproached and magnified themselves against the people of the LORD of hosts.
002:011 The LORD will be terrible unto them: for he will famish all the gods of the earth; and men shall worship him, every one from his place, even all the isles of the heathen.
002:012 Ye Ethiopians also, ye shall be slain by my sword.
002:013 And he will stretch out his hand against the north, and destroy Assyria; and will make Nineveh a desolation, and dry like a wilderness.
002:014 And flocks shall lie down in the midst of her, all the beasts of the nations: both the cormorant and the bittern shall lodge in the upper lintels of it; their voice shall sing in the windows; desolation shall be in the thresholds; for he shall uncover the cedar work.
002:015 This is the rejoicing city that dwelt carelessly, that said in her heart, I am, and there is none beside me: how is she become a desolation, a place for beasts to lie down in! every one that passeth by her shall hiss, and wag his hand.

003:001 Woe to her that is filthy and polluted, to the oppressing city!
003:002 She obeyed not the voice; she received not correction; she trusted not in the LORD; she drew not near to her God.
003:003 Her princes within her are roaring lions; her judges are evening wolves; they gnaw not the bones till the morrow.
003:004 Her prophets are light and treacherous persons: her priests have polluted the sanctuary, they have done violence to the law.
003:005 The just LORD is in the midst thereof; he will not do iniquity: every morning doth he bring his judgment to light, he faileth not; but the unjust knoweth no shame.
003:006 I have cut off the nations: their towers are desolate; I made their streets waste, that none passeth by: their cities are destroyed, so that there is no man, that there is none inhabitant.
003:007 I said, Surely thou wilt fear me, thou wilt receive instruction; so their dwelling should not be cut off, howsoever I punished them: but they rose early, and corrupted all their doings.
003:008 Therefore wait ye upon me, saith the LORD, until the day that I rise up to the prey: for my determination is to gather the nations, that I may assemble the kingdoms, to pour upon them mine indignation, even all my fierce anger: for all the earth shall be devoured with the fire of my jealousy.
003:009 For then will I turn to the people a pure language, that they may all call upon the name of the LORD, to serve him with one consent.
003:010 From beyond the rivers of Ethiopia my suppliants, even the daughter of my dispersed, shall bring mine offering.
003:011 In that day shalt thou not be ashamed for all thy doings, wherein thou hast transgressed against me: for then I will take away out of the midst of thee them that rejoice in thy pride, and thou shalt no more be haughty because of my holy mountain.
003:012 I will also leave in the midst of thee an afflicted and poor people, and they shall trust in the name of the LORD.
003:013 The remnant of Israel shall not do iniquity, nor speak lies; neither shall a deceitful tongue be found in their mouth: for they shall feed and lie down, and none shall make them afraid.
003:014 Sing, O daughter of Zion; shout, O Israel; be glad and rejoice with all the heart, O daughter of Jerusalem.
003:015 The LORD hath taken away thy judgments, he hath cast out thine enemy: the king of Israel, even the LORD, is in the midst of thee: thou shalt not see evil any more.
003:016 In that day it shall be said to Jerusalem, Fear thou not: and to Zion, Let not thine hands be slack.
003:017 The LORD thy God in the midst of thee is mighty; he will save, he will rejoice over thee with joy; he will rest in his love, he will joy over thee with singing.
003:018 I will gather them that are sorrowful for the solemn assembly, who are of thee, to whom the reproach of it was a burden.
003:019 Behold, at that time I will undo all that afflict thee: and I will save her that halteth, and gather her that was driven out; and I will get them praise and fame in every land where they have been put to shame.
003:020 At that time will I bring you again, even in the time that I gather you: for I will make you a name and a praise among all people of the earth, when I turn back your captivity before your eyes, saith the LORD.



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*The Good News Bible, Today's English Version, Second Edition, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville. 1992
**The Liberty Annotated Study Bible, 1988, Liberty University Publication and Thomas A Nelson, Inc. Publication.
***The Liberty Annotated Study Bible, 1988, Liberty University Publication and Thomas A Nelson, Inc. Publication.
****F.B. Meyer Bible Commentary; Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Wheaton, Illinois. ISBN 0-8423-4250-8, 1978.
Note: Chapter topic headings suggested from "The Holman Illustrated Study Bible"; Holman Bible Publishers, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A. ISBN: 978-1-58640-275-4. and Chapter topic headings suggested from "The Inspirational Study Bible" by Max Lucado, General Editor; Word Bibles, 1991; Thomas Nelson, Inc., ISBN 0-8499-5123-2 (Hardback edition); and "The Liberty Annotated Study Bible, 1988, Liberty University Publication and Thomas A Nelson, Inc. Publication. and from "The Abingdon Bible Commentary" Abingdon Press, 1929, The Good News Bible, Today's English Version, Second Edition, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville. 1992, and

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